AAAI.2022

Total: 1624

#1 Learning Unseen Emotions from Gestures via Semantically-Conditioned Zero-Shot Perception with Adversarial Autoencoders [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Abhishek Banerjee ; Uttaran Bhattacharya ; Aniket Bera

We present a novel generalized zero-shot algorithm to recognize perceived emotions from gestures. Our task is to map gestures to novel emotion categories not encountered in training. We introduce an adversarial autoencoder-based representation learning that correlates 3D motion-captured gesture sequences with the vectorized representation of the natural-language perceived emotion terms using word2vec embeddings. The language-semantic embedding provides a representation of the emotion label space, and we leverage this underlying distribution to map the gesture sequences to the appropriate categorical emotion labels. We train our method using a combination of gestures annotated with known emotion terms and gestures not annotated with any emotions. We evaluate our method on the MPI Emotional Body Expressions Database (EBEDB) and obtain an accuracy of 58.43%. We see an improvement in performance compared to current state-of-the-art algorithms for generalized zero-shot learning by an absolute 25-27%. We also demonstrate our approach on publicly available online videos and movie scenes, where the actors' pose has been extracted and map to their respective emotive states.

#2 Optimized Potential Initialization for Low-Latency Spiking Neural Networks [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi1]

Authors: Tong Bu ; Jianhao Ding ; Zhaofei Yu ; Tiejun Huang

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have been attached great importance due to the distinctive properties of low power consumption, biological plausibility, and adversarial robustness. The most effective way to train deep SNNs is through ANN-to-SNN conversion, which have yielded the best performance in deep network structure and large-scale datasets. However, there is a trade-off between accuracy and latency. In order to achieve high precision as original ANNs, a long simulation time is needed to match the firing rate of a spiking neuron with the activation value of an analog neuron, which impedes the practical application of SNN. In this paper, we aim to achieve high-performance converted SNNs with extremely low latency (fewer than 32 time-steps). We start by theoretically analyzing ANN-to-SNN conversion and show that scaling the thresholds does play a similar role as weight normalization. Instead of introducing constraints that facilitate ANN-to-SNN conversion at the cost of model capacity, we applied a more direct way by optimizing the initial membrane potential to reduce the conversion loss in each layer. Besides, we demonstrate that optimal initialization of membrane potentials can implement expected error-free ANN-to-SNN conversion. We evaluate our algorithm on the CIFAR-10 dataset and CIFAR-100 dataset and achieve state-of-the-art accuracy, using fewer time-steps. For example, we reach top-1 accuracy of 93.38% on CIFAR-10 with 16 time-steps. Moreover, our method can be applied to other ANN-SNN conversion methodologies and remarkably promote performance when the time-steps is small.

#3 Planning with Biological Neurons and Synapses [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Francesco d'Amore ; Daniel Mitropolsky ; Pierluigi Crescenzi ; Emanuele Natale ; Christos H. Papadimitriou

We revisit the planning problem in the blocks world, and we implement a known heuristic for this task. Importantly, our implementation is biologically plausible, in the sense that it is carried out exclusively through the spiking of neurons. Even though much has been accomplished in the blocks world over the past five decades, we believe that this is the first algorithm of its kind. The input is a sequence of symbols encoding an initial set of block stacks as well as a target set, and the output is a sequence of motion commands such as "put the top block in stack 1 on the table". The program is written in the Assembly Calculus, a recently proposed computational framework meant to model computation in the brain by bridging the gap between neural activity and cognitive function. Its elementary objects are assemblies of neurons (stable sets of neurons whose simultaneous firing signifies that the subject is thinking of an object, concept, word, etc.), its commands include project and merge, and its execution model is based on widely accepted tenets of neuroscience. A program in this framework essentially sets up a dynamical system of neurons and synapses that eventually, with high probability, accomplishes the task. The purpose of this work is to establish empirically that reasonably large programs in the Assembly Calculus can execute correctly and reliably; and that rather realistic --- if idealized --- higher cognitive functions, such as planning in the blocks world, can be implemented successfully by such programs.

#4 Backprop-Free Reinforcement Learning with Active Neural Generative Coding [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Alexander G. Ororbia ; Ankur Mali

In humans, perceptual awareness facilitates the fast recognition and extraction of information from sensory input. This awareness largely depends on how the human agent interacts with the environment. In this work, we propose active neural generative coding, a computational framework for learning action-driven generative models without backpropagation of errors (backprop) in dynamic environments. Specifically, we develop an intelligent agent that operates even with sparse rewards, drawing inspiration from the cognitive theory of planning as inference. We demonstrate on several simple control problems that our framework performs competitively with deep Q-learning. The robust performance of our agent offers promising evidence that a backprop-free approach for neural inference and learning can drive goal-directed behavior.

#5 VECA: A New Benchmark and Toolkit for General Cognitive Development [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Kwanyoung Park ; Hyunseok Oh ; Youngki Lee

The developmental approach, simulating a cognitive development of a human, arises as a way to nurture a human-level commonsense and overcome the limitations of data-driven approaches. However, neither a virtual environment nor an evaluation platform exists for the overall development of core cognitive skills. We present the VECA(Virtual Environment for Cognitive Assessment), which consists of two main components: (i) a first benchmark to assess the overall cognitive development of an AI agent, and (ii) a novel toolkit to generate diverse and distinct cognitive tasks. VECA benchmark virtually implements the cognitive scale of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-IV(Bayley-4), the gold-standard developmental assessment for human infants and toddlers. Our VECA toolkit provides a human toddler-like embodied agent with various human-like perceptual features crucial to human cognitive development, e.g., binocular vision, 3D-spatial audio, and tactile receptors. We compare several modern RL algorithms on our VECA benchmark and seek their limitations in modeling human-like cognitive development. We further analyze the validity of the VECA benchmark, as well as the effect of human-like sensory characteristics on cognitive skills.

#6 Bridging between Cognitive Processing Signals and Linguistic Features via a Unified Attentional Network [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Yuqi Ren ; Deyi Xiong

Cognitive processing signals can be used to improve natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, it is not clear how these signals correlate with linguistic information. Bridging between human language processing and linguistic features has been widely studied in neurolinguistics, usually via single-variable controlled experiments with highly-controlled stimuli. Such methods not only compromises the authenticity of natural reading, but also are time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing signals and linguistic features. Specifically, we present a unified attentional framework that is composed of embedding, attention, encoding and predicting layers to selectively map cognitive processing signals to linguistic features. We define the mapping procedure as a bridging task and develop 12 bridging tasks for lexical, syntactic and semantic features. The proposed framework only requires cognitive processing signals recorded under natural reading as inputs, and can be used to detect a wide range of linguistic features with a single cognitive dataset. Observations from experiment results resonate with previous neuroscience findings. In addition to this, our experiments also reveal a number of interesting findings, such as the correlation between contextual eye-tracking features and tense of sentence.

#7 Multi-Sacle Dynamic Coding Improved Spiking Actor Network for Reinforcement Learning [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Duzhen Zhang ; Tielin Zhang ; Shuncheng Jia ; Bo Xu

With the help of deep neural networks (DNNs), deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has achieved great success on many complex tasks, from games to robotic control. Compared to DNNs with partial brain-inspired structures and functions, spiking neural networks (SNNs) consider more biological features, including spiking neurons with complex dynamics and learning paradigms with biologically plausible plasticity principles. Inspired by the efficient computation of cell assembly in the biological brain, whereby memory-based coding is much more complex than readout, we propose a multiscale dynamic coding improved spiking actor network (MDC-SAN) for reinforcement learning to achieve effective decision-making. The population coding at the network scale is integrated with the dynamic neurons coding (containing 2nd-order neuronal dynamics) at the neuron scale towards a powerful spatial-temporal state representation. Extensive experimental results show that our MDC-SAN performs better than its counterpart deep actor network (based on DNNs) on four continuous control tasks from OpenAI gym. We think this is a significant attempt to improve SNNs from the perspective of efficient coding towards effective decision-making, just like that in biological networks.

#8 Joint Human Pose Estimation and Instance Segmentation with PosePlusSeg [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Niaz Ahmad ; Jawad Khan ; Jeremy Yuhyun Kim ; Youngmoon Lee

Despite the advances in multi-person pose estimation, state-of-the-art techniques only deliver the human pose structure.Yet, they do not leverage the keypoints of human pose to deliver whole-body shape information for human instance segmentation. This paper presents PosePlusSeg, a joint model designed for both human pose estimation and instance segmentation. For pose estimation, PosePlusSeg first takes a bottom-up approach to detect the soft and hard keypoints of individuals by producing a strong keypoint heat map, then improves the keypoint detection confidence score by producing a body heat map. For instance segmentation, PosePlusSeg generates a mask offset where keypoint is defined as a centroid for the pixels in the embedding space, enabling instance-level segmentation for the human class. Finally, we propose a new pose and instance segmentation algorithm that enables PosePlusSeg to determine the joint structure of the human pose and instance segmentation. Experiments using the COCO challenging dataset demonstrate that PosePlusSeg copes better with challenging scenarios, like occlusions, en-tangled limbs, and overlapped people. PosePlusSeg outperforms state-of-the-art detection-based approaches achieving a 0.728 mAP for human pose estimation and a 0.445 mAP for instance segmentation. Code has been made available at: https://github.com/RaiseLab/PosePlusSeg.

#9 Logic Rule Guided Attribution with Dynamic Ablation [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Jianqiao An ; Yuandu Lai ; Yahong Han

With the increasing demands for understanding the internal behaviors of deep networks, Explainable AI (XAI) has been made remarkable progress in interpreting the model's decision. A family of attribution techniques has been proposed, highlighting whether the input pixels are responsible for the model's prediction. However, the existing attribution methods suffer from the lack of rule guidance and require further human interpretations. In this paper, we construct the 'if-then' logic rules that are sufficiently precise locally. Moreover, a novel rule-guided method, dynamic ablation (DA), is proposed to find a minimal bound sufficient in an input image to justify the network's prediction and aggregate iteratively to reach a complete attribution. Both qualitative and quantitative experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed DA. We demonstrate the advantages of our method in providing clear and explicit explanations that are also easy for human experts to understand. Besides, through the attribution on a series of trained networks with different architectures, we show that more complex networks require less information to make a specific prediction.

#10 Neural Marionette: Unsupervised Learning of Motion Skeleton and Latent Dynamics from Volumetric Video [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Jinseok Bae ; Hojun Jang ; Cheol-Hui Min ; Hyungun Choi ; Young Min Kim

We present Neural Marionette, an unsupervised approach that discovers the skeletal structure from a dynamic sequence and learns to generate diverse motions that are consistent with the observed motion dynamics. Given a video stream of point cloud observation of an articulated body under arbitrary motion, our approach discovers the unknown low-dimensional skeletal relationship that can effectively represent the movement. Then the discovered structure is utilized to encode the motion priors of dynamic sequences in a latent structure, which can be decoded to the relative joint rotations to represent the full skeletal motion. Our approach works without any prior knowledge of the underlying motion or skeletal structure, and we demonstrate that the discovered structure is even comparable to the hand-labeled ground truth skeleton in representing a 4D sequence of motion. The skeletal structure embeds the general semantics of possible motion space that can generate motions for diverse scenarios. We verify that the learned motion prior is generalizable to the multi-modal sequence generation, interpolation of two poses, and motion retargeting to a different skeletal structure.

#11 Deformable Part Region Learning for Object Detection [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Author: Seung-Hwan Bae

In a convolutional object detector, the detection accuracy can be degraded often due to the low feature discriminability caused by geometric variation or transformation of an object. In this paper, we propose a deformable part region learning in order to allow decomposed part regions to be deformable according to geometric transformation of an object. To this end, we introduce trainable geometric parameters for the location of each part model. Because the ground truth of the part models is not available, we design classification and mask losses for part models, and learn the geometric parameters by minimizing an integral loss including those part losses. As a result, we can train a deformable part region network without extra super-vision and make each part model deformable according to object scale variation. Furthermore, for improving cascade object detection and instance segmentation, we present a Cascade deformable part region architecture which can refine whole and part detections iteratively in the cascade manner. Without bells and whistles, our implementation of a Cascade deformable part region detector achieves better detection and segmentation mAPs on COCO and VOC datasets, compared to the recent cascade and other state-of-the-art detectors.

#12 Towards End-to-End Image Compression and Analysis with Transformers [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Yuanchao Bai ; Xu Yang ; Xianming Liu ; Junjun Jiang ; Yaowei Wang ; Xiangyang Ji ; Wen Gao

We propose an end-to-end image compression and analysis model with Transformers, targeting to the cloud-based image classification application. Instead of placing an existing Transformer-based image classification model directly after an image codec, we aim to redesign the Vision Transformer (ViT) model to perform image classification from the compressed features and facilitate image compression with the long-term information from the Transformer. Specifically, we first replace the patchify stem (i.e., image splitting and embedding) of the ViT model with a lightweight image encoder modelled by a convolutional neural network. The compressed features generated by the image encoder are injected convolutional inductive bias and are fed to the Transformer for image classification bypassing image reconstruction. Meanwhile, we propose a feature aggregation module to fuse the compressed features with the selected intermediate features of the Transformer, and feed the aggregated features to a deconvolutional neural network for image reconstruction. The aggregated features can obtain the long-term information from the self-attention mechanism of the Transformer and improve the compression performance. The rate-distortion-accuracy optimization problem is finally solved by a two-step training strategy. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in both the image compression and the classification tasks.

#13 Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition via Attention Aggregation Based Bi-directional Mutual Learning [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Xiaohang Bian ; Bo Qin ; Xiaozhe Xin ; Jianwu Li ; Xuefeng Su ; Yanfeng Wang

Handwritten mathematical expression recognition aims to automatically generate LaTeX sequences from given images. Currently, attention-based encoder-decoder models are widely used in this task. They typically generate target sequences in a left-to-right (L2R) manner, leaving the right-to-left (R2L) contexts unexploited. In this paper, we propose an Attention aggregation based Bi-directional Mutual learning Network (ABM) which consists of one shared encoder and two parallel inverse decoders (L2R and R2L). The two decoders are enhanced via mutual distillation, which involves one-to-one knowledge transfer at each training step, making full use of the complementary information from two inverse directions. Moreover, in order to deal with mathematical symbols in diverse scales, an Attention Aggregation Module (AAM) is proposed to effectively integrate multi-scale coverage attentions. Notably, in the inference phase, given that the model already learns knowledge from two inverse directions, we only use the L2R branch for inference, keeping the original parameter size and inference speed. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed approach achieves the recognition accuracy of 56.85 % on CROHME 2014, 52.92 % on CROHME 2016, and 53.96 % on CROHME 2019 without data augmentation and model ensembling, substantially outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. The source code is available in https://github.com/XH-B/ABM.

#14 ADD: Frequency Attention and Multi-View Based Knowledge Distillation to Detect Low-Quality Compressed Deepfake Images [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Le Minh Binh ; Simon Woo

Despite significant advancements of deep learning-based forgery detectors for distinguishing manipulated deepfake images, most detection approaches suffer from moderate to significant performance degradation with low-quality compressed deepfake images. Because of the limited information in low-quality images, detecting low-quality deepfake remains an important challenge. In this work, we apply frequency domain learning and optimal transport theory in knowledge distillation (KD) to specifically improve the detection of low-quality compressed deepfake images. We explore transfer learning capability in KD to enable a student network to learn discriminative features from low-quality images effectively. In particular, we propose the Attention-based Deepfake detection Distiller (ADD), which consists of two novel distillations: 1) frequency attention distillation that effectively retrieves the removed high-frequency components in the student network, and 2) multi-view attention distillation that creates multiple attention vectors by slicing the teacher’s and student’s tensors under different views to transfer the teacher tensor’s distribution to the student more efficiently. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art baselines in detecting low-quality compressed deepfake images.

#15 LUNA: Localizing Unfamiliarity Near Acquaintance for Open-Set Long-Tailed Recognition [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Jiarui Cai ; Yizhou Wang ; Hung-Min Hsu ; Jenq-Neng Hwang ; Kelsey Magrane ; Craig S Rose

The predefined artificially-balanced training classes in object recognition have limited capability in modeling real-world scenarios where objects are imbalanced-distributed with unknown classes. In this paper, we discuss a promising solution to the Open-set Long-Tailed Recognition (OLTR) task utilizing metric learning. Firstly, we propose a distribution-sensitive loss, which weighs more on the tail classes to decrease the intra-class distance in the feature space. Building upon these concentrated feature clusters, a local-density-based metric is introduced, called Localizing Unfamiliarity Near Acquaintance (LUNA), to measure the novelty of a testing sample. LUNA is flexible with different cluster sizes and is reliable on the cluster boundary by considering neighbors of different properties. Moreover, contrary to most of the existing works that alleviate the open-set detection as a simple binary decision, LUNA is a quantitative measurement with interpretable meanings. Our proposed method exceeds the state-of-the-art algorithm by 4-6% in the closed-set recognition accuracy and 4% in F-measure under the open-set on the public benchmark datasets, including our own newly introduced fine-grained OLTR dataset about marine species (MS-LT), which is the first naturally-distributed OLTR dataset revealing the genuine genetic relationships of the classes.

#16 Prior Gradient Mask Guided Pruning-Aware Fine-Tuning [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Linhang Cai ; Zhulin An ; Chuanguang Yang ; Yangchun Yan ; Yongjun Xu

We proposed a Prior Gradient Mask Guided Pruning-aware Fine-Tuning (PGMPF) framework to accelerate deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In detail, the proposed PGMPF selectively suppresses the gradient of those ”unimportant” parameters via a prior gradient mask generated by the pruning criterion during fine-tuning. PGMPF has three charming characteristics over previous works: (1) Pruning-aware network fine-tuning. A typical pruning pipeline consists of training, pruning and fine-tuning, which are relatively independent, while PGMPF utilizes a variant of the pruning mask as a prior gradient mask to guide fine-tuning, without complicated pruning criteria. (2) An excellent tradeoff between large model capacity during fine-tuning and stable convergence speed to obtain the final compact model. Previous works preserve more training information of pruned parameters during fine-tuning to pursue better performance, which would incur catastrophic non-convergence of the pruned model for relatively large pruning rates, while our PGMPF greatly stabilizes the fine-tuning phase by gradually constraining the learning rate of those ”unimportant” parameters. (3) Channel-wise random dropout of the prior gradient mask to impose some gradient noise to fine-tuning to further improve the robustness of final compact model. Experimental results on three image classification benchmarks CIFAR10/ 100 and ILSVRC-2012 demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for various CNN architectures, datasets and pruning rates. Notably, on ILSVRC-2012, PGMPF reduces 53.5% FLOPs on ResNet-50 with only 0.90% top-1 accuracy drop and 0.52% top-5 accuracy drop, which has advanced the state-of-the-art with negligible extra computational cost.

#17 Context-Aware Transfer Attacks for Object Detection [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Zikui Cai ; Xinxin Xie ; Shasha Li ; Mingjun Yin ; Chengyu Song ; Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy ; Amit K. Roy-Chowdhury ; M. Salman Asif

Blackbox transfer attacks for image classifiers have been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, little progress has been made on transfer attacks for object detectors. Object detectors take a holistic view of the image and the detection of one object (or lack thereof) often depends on other objects in the scene. This makes such detectors inherently context-aware and adversarial attacks in this space are more challenging than those targeting image classifiers. In this paper, we present a new approach to generate context-aware attacks for object detectors. We show that by using co-occurrence of objects and their relative locations and sizes as context information, we can successfully generate targeted mis-categorization attacks that achieve higher transfer success rates on blackbox object detectors than the state-of-the-art. We test our approach on a variety of object detectors with images from PASCAL VOC and MS COCO datasets and demonstrate up to 20 percentage points improvement in performance compared to the other state-of-the-art methods.

#18 OoDHDR-Codec: Out-of-Distribution Generalization for HDR Image Compression [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Linfeng Cao ; Aofan Jiang ; Wei Li ; Huaying Wu ; Nanyang Ye

Recently, deep learning has been proven to be a promising approach in standard dynamic range (SDR) image compression. However, due to the wide luminance distribution of high dynamic range (HDR) images and the lack of large standard datasets, developing a deep model for HDR image compression is much more challenging. To tackle this issue, we view HDR data as distributional shifts of SDR data and the HDR image compression can be modeled as an out-of-distribution generalization (OoD) problem. Herein, we propose a novel out-of-distribution (OoD) HDR image compression framework (OoDHDR-codec). It learns the general representation across HDR and SDR environments, and allows the model to be trained effectively using a large set of SDR datases supplemented with much fewer HDR samples. Specifically, OoDHDR-codec consists of two branches to process the data from two environments. The SDR branch is a standard blackbox network. For the HDR branch, we develop a hybrid system that models luminance masking and tone mapping with white-box modules and performs content compression with black-box neural networks. To improve the generalization from SDR training data on HDR data, we introduce an invariance regularization term to learn the common representation for both SDR and HDR compression. Extensive experimental results show that the OoDHDR codec achieves strong competitive in-distribution performance and state-of-the-art OoD performance. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed approach is the first work to model HDR compression as OoD generalization problems and our OoD generalization algorithmic framework can be applied to any deep compression model in addition to the network architectural choice demonstrated in the paper. Code available at https://github.com/caolinfeng/OoDHDR-codec.

#19 Visual Consensus Modeling for Video-Text Retrieval [PDF2] [Copy] [Kimi1]

Authors: Shuqiang Cao ; Bairui Wang ; Wei Zhang ; Lin Ma

In this paper, we propose a novel method to mine the commonsense knowledge shared between the video and text modalities for video-text retrieval, namely visual consensus modeling. Different from the existing works, which learn the video and text representations and their complicated relationships solely based on the pairwise video-text data, we make the first attempt to model the visual consensus by mining the visual concepts from videos and exploiting their co-occurrence patterns within the video and text modalities with no reliance on any additional concept annotations. Specifically, we build a shareable and learnable graph as the visual consensus, where the nodes denoting the mined visual concepts and the edges connecting the nodes representing the co-occurrence relationships between the visual concepts. Extensive experimental results on the public benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed method, with the ability to effectively model the visual consensus, achieves state-of-the-art performances on the bidirectional video-text retrieval task. Our code is available at https://github.com/sqiangcao99/VCM.

#20 Proximal PanNet: A Model-Based Deep Network for Pansharpening [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Xiangyong Cao ; Yang Chen ; Wenfei Cao

Recently, deep learning techniques have been extensively studied for pansharpening, which aims to generate a high resolution multispectral (HRMS) image by fusing a low resolution multispectral (LRMS) image with a high resolution panchromatic (PAN) image. However, existing deep learning-based pansharpening methods directly learn the mapping from LRMS and PAN to HRMS. These network architectures always lack sufficient interpretability, which limits further performance improvements. To alleviate this issue, we propose a novel deep network for pansharpening by combining the model-based methodology with the deep learning method. Firstly, we build an observation model for pansharpening using the convolutional sparse coding (CSC) technique and design a proximal gradient algorithm to solve this model. Secondly, we unfold the iterative algorithm into a deep network, dubbed as Proximal PanNet, by learning the proximal operators using convolutional neural networks. Finally, all the learnable modules can be automatically learned in an end-to-end manner. Experimental results on some benchmark datasets show that our network performs better than other advanced methods both quantitatively and qualitatively.

#21 CF-DETR: Coarse-to-Fine Transformers for End-to-End Object Detection [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Xipeng Cao ; Peng Yuan ; Bailan Feng ; Kun Niu

The recently proposed DEtection TRansformer (DETR) achieves promising performance for end-to-end object detection. However, it has relatively lower detection performance on small objects and suffers from slow convergence. This paper observed that DETR performs surprisingly well even on small objects when measuring Average Precision (AP) at decreased Intersection-over-Union (IoU) thresholds. Motivated by this observation, we propose a simple way to improve DETR by refining the coarse features and predicted locations. Specifically, we propose a novel Coarse-to-Fine (CF) decoder layer constituted of a coarse layer and a carefully designed fine layer. Within each CF decoder layer, the extracted local information (region of interest feature) is introduced into the flow of global context information from the coarse layer to refine and enrich the object query features via the fine layer. In the fine layer, the multi-scale information can be fully explored and exploited via the Adaptive Scale Fusion(ASF) module and Local Cross-Attention (LCA) module. The multi-scale information can also be enhanced by another proposed Transformer Enhanced FPN (TEF) module to further improve the performance. With our proposed framework (named CF-DETR), the localization accuracy of objects (especially for small objects) can be largely improved. As a byproduct, the slow convergence issue of DETR can also be addressed. The effectiveness of CF-DETR is validated via extensive experiments on the coco benchmark. CF-DETR achieves state-of-the-art performance among end-to-end detectors, e.g., achieving 47.8 AP using ResNet-50 with 36 epochs in the standard 3x training schedule.

#22 A Random CNN Sees Objects: One Inductive Bias of CNN and Its Applications [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Yun-Hao Cao ; Jianxin Wu

This paper starts by revealing a surprising finding: without any learning, a randomly initialized CNN can localize objects surprisingly well. That is, a CNN has an inductive bias to naturally focus on objects, named as Tobias ("The object is at sight") in this paper. This empirical inductive bias is further analyzed and successfully applied to self-supervised learning (SSL). A CNN is encouraged to learn representations that focus on the foreground object, by transforming every image into various versions with different backgrounds, where the foreground and background separation is guided by Tobias. Experimental results show that the proposed Tobias significantly improves downstream tasks, especially for object detection. This paper also shows that Tobias has consistent improvements on training sets of different sizes, and is more resilient to changes in image augmentations.

#23 Texture Generation Using Dual-Domain Feature Flow with Multi-View Hallucinations [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Seunggyu Chang ; Jungchan Cho ; Songhwai Oh

We propose a dual-domain generative model to estimate a texture map from a single image for colorizing a 3D human model. When estimating a texture map, a single image is insufficient as it reveals only one facet of a 3D object. To provide sufficient information for estimating a complete texture map, the proposed model simultaneously generates multi-view hallucinations in the image domain and an estimated texture map in the texture domain. During the generating process, each domain generator exchanges features to the other by a flow-based local attention mechanism. In this manner, the proposed model can estimate a texture map utilizing abundant multi-view image features from which multiview hallucinations are generated. As a result, the estimated texture map contains consistent colors and patterns over the entire region. Experiments show the superiority of our model for estimating a directly render-able texture map, which is applicable to 3D animation rendering. Furthermore, our model also improves an overall generation quality in the image domain for pose and viewpoint transfer tasks.

#24 Resistance Training Using Prior Bias: Toward Unbiased Scene Graph Generation [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Chao Chen ; Yibing Zhan ; Baosheng Yu ; Liu Liu ; Yong Luo ; Bo Du

Scene Graph Generation (SGG) aims to build a structured representation of a scene using objects and pairwise relationships, which benefits downstream tasks. However, current SGG methods usually suffer from sub-optimal scene graph generation because of the long-tailed distribution of training data. To address this problem, we propose Resistance Training using Prior Bias (RTPB) for the scene graph generation. Specifically, RTPB uses a distributed-based prior bias to improve models' detecting ability on less frequent relationships during training, thus improving the model generalizability on tail categories. In addition, to further explore the contextual information of objects and relationships, we design a contextual encoding backbone network, termed as Dual Transformer (DTrans). We perform extensive experiments on a very popular benchmark, VG150, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for the unbiased scene graph generation. In specific, our RTPB achieves an improvement of over 10% under the mean recall when applied to current SGG methods. Furthermore, DTrans with RTPB outperforms nearly all state-of-the-art methods with a large margin. Code is available at https://github.com/ChCh1999/RTPB

#25 SASA: Semantics-Augmented Set Abstraction for Point-Based 3D Object Detection [PDF1] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Chen Chen ; Zhe Chen ; Jing Zhang ; Dacheng Tao

Although point-based networks are demonstrated to be accurate for 3D point cloud modeling, they are still falling behind their voxel-based competitors in 3D detection. We observe that the prevailing set abstraction design for down-sampling points may maintain too much unimportant background information that can affect feature learning for detecting objects. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel set abstraction method named Semantics-Augmented Set Abstraction (SASA). Technically, we first add a binary segmentation module as the side output to help identify foreground points. Based on the estimated point-wise foreground scores, we then propose a semantics-guided point sampling algorithm to help retain more important foreground points during down-sampling. In practice, SASA shows to be effective in identifying valuable points related to foreground objects and improving feature learning for point-based 3D detection. Additionally, it is an easy-to-plug-in module and able to boost various point-based detectors, including single-stage and two-stage ones. Extensive experiments on the popular KITTI and nuScenes datasets validate the superiority of SASA, lifting point-based detection models to reach comparable performance to state-of-the-art voxel-based methods. Code is available at https://github.com/blakechen97/SASA.