IJCAI.2017 - Robotics and Vision

Total: 11

#1 Dual Track Multimodal Automatic Learning through Human-Robot Interaction [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Shuqiang Jiang ; Weiqing Min ; Xue Li ; Huayang Wang ; Jian Sun ; Jiaqi Zhou

Human beings are constantly improving their cognitive ability via automatic learning from the interaction with the environment. Two important aspects of automatic learning are the visual perception and knowledge acquisition. The fusion of these two aspects is vital for improving the intelligence and interaction performance of robots. Many automatic knowledge extraction and recognition methods have been widely studied. However, little work focuses on integrating automatic knowledge extraction and recognition into a unified framework to enable jointly visual perception and knowledge acquisition. To solve this problem, we propose a Dual Track Multimodal Automatic Learning (DTMAL) system, which consists of two components: Hybrid Incremental Learning (HIL) from the vision track and Multimodal Knowledge Extraction (MKE) from the knowledge track. HIL can incrementally improve recognition ability of the system by learning new object samples and new object concepts. MKE is capable of constructing and updating the multimodal knowledge items based on the recognized new objects from HIL and other knowledge by exploring the multimodal signals. The fusion of the two tracks is a mutual promotion process and jointly devote to the dual track learning. We have conducted the experiments through human-machine interaction and the experimental results validated the effectiveness of our proposed system.

#2 Locality Preserving Matching [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Jiayi Ma ; Ji Zhao ; Hanqi Guo ; Junjun Jiang ; Huabing Zhou ; Yuan Gao

Seeking reliable correspondences between two feature sets is a fundamental and important task in computer vision. This paper attempts to remove mismatches from given putative image feature correspondences. To achieve the goal, an efficient approach, termed as locality preserving matching (LPM), is designed, the principle of which is to maintain the local neighborhood structures of those potential true matches. We formulate the problem into a mathematical model, and derive a closed-form solution with linearithmic time and linear space complexities. More specifically, our method can accomplish the mismatch removal from thousands of putative correspondences in only a few milliseconds. Experiments on various real image pairs for general feature matching, as well as for visual homing and image retrieval demonstrate the generality of our method for handling different types of image deformations, and it is more than two orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art methods in the same range of or better accuracy.

#3 Salient Object Detection with Semantic Priors [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Tam V. Nguyen ; Luoqi Liu

Salient object detection has increasingly become a popular topic in cognitive and computational sciences, including computer vision and artificial intelligence research. In this paper, we propose integrating semantic priors into the salient object detection process. Our algorithm consists of three basic steps. Firstly, the explicit saliency map is obtained based on the semantic segmentation refined by the explicit saliency priors learned from the data. Next, the implicit saliency map is computed based on a trained model which maps the implicit saliency priors embedded into regional features with the saliency values. Finally, the explicit semantic map and the implicit map are adaptively fused to form a pixel-accurate saliency map which uniformly covers the objects of interest. We further evaluate the proposed framework on two challenging datasets, namely, ECSSD and HKUIS. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

#4 Temporal Grounding Graphs for Language Understanding with Accrued Visual-Linguistic Context [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Rohan Paul ; Andrei Barbu ; Sue Felshin ; Boris Katz ; Nicholas Roy

A robot’s ability to understand or ground natural language instructions is fundamentally tied to its knowledge about the surrounding world. We present an approach to grounding natural language utterances in the context of factual information gathered through natural-language interactions and past visual observations. A probabilistic model estimates, from a natural language utterance, the objects, relations, and actions that the utterance refers to, the objectives for future robotic actions it implies, and generates a plan to execute those actions while updating a state representation to include newly acquired knowledge from the visual-linguistic context. Grounding a command necessitates a representation for past observations and interactions; however, maintaining the full context consisting of all possible observed objects, attributes, spatial relations, actions, etc., over time is intractable. Instead, our model, Temporal Grounding Graphs, maintains a learned state representation for a belief over factual groundings, those derived from natural-language interactions, and lazily infers new groundings from visual observations using the context implied by the utterance. This work significantly expands the range of language that a robot can understand by incorporating factual knowledge and observations of its workspace into its inference about the meaning and grounding of natural-language utterances.

#5 Maintaining Communication in Multi-Robot Tree Coverage [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Mor Sinay ; Noa Agmon ; Oleg Maksimov ; Sarit Kraus ; David Peleg

Area coverage is an important task for mobile robots, mainly due to its applicability in many domains, such as search and rescue. In this paper we study the problem of multi-robot coverage, in which the robots must obey a strong communication restriction: they should maintain connectivity between teammates throughout the coverage. We formally describe the Multi-Robot Connected Tree Coverage problem, and an algorithm for covering perfect N-ary trees while adhering to the communication requirement. The algorithm is analyzed theoretically, providing guarantees for coverage time by the notion of speedup factor. We enhance the theoretically-proven solution with a dripping heuristic algorithm, and show in extensive simulations that it significantly decreases the coverage time. The algorithm is then adjusted to general (not necessarily perfect) N-ary trees and additional experiments prove its efficiency. Furthermore, we show the use of our solution in a simulated officebuilding scenario. Finally, we deploy our algorithm on real robots in a real office building setting, showing efficient coverage time in practice.

#6 Combining Models from Multiple Sources for RGB-D Scene Recognition [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Xinhang Song ; Shuqiang Jiang ; Luis Herranz

Depth can complement RGB with useful cues about object volumes and scene layout. However, RGB-D image datasets are still too small for directly training deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), in contrast to the massive monomodal RGB datasets. Previous works in RGB-D recognition typically combine two separate networks for RGB and depth data, pretrained with a large RGB dataset and then fine tuned to the respective target RGB and depth datasets. These approaches have several limitations: 1) only use low-level filters learned from RGB data, thus not being able to exploit properly depth-specific patterns, and 2) RGB and depth features are only combined at high-levels but rarely at lower-levels. In this paper, we propose a framework that leverages both knowledge acquired from large RGB datasets together with depth-specific cues learned from the limited depth data, obtaining more effective multi-source and multi-modal representations. We propose a multi-modal combination method that selects discriminative combinations of layers from the different source models and target modalities, capturing both high-level properties of the task and intrinsic low-level properties of both modalities.

#7 Fast Preprocessing for Robust Face Sketch Synthesis [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Yibing Song ; Jiawei Zhang ; Linchao Bao ; Qingxiong Yang

Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis methods usually meet the challenging problem that input photos are captured in different lighting conditions from training photos. The critical step causing the failure is the search of similar patch candidates for an input photo patch. Conventional illumination invariant patch distances are adopted rather than directly relying on pixel intensity difference, but they will fail when local contrast within a patch changes. In this paper, we propose a fast preprocessing method named Bidirectional Luminance Remapping (BLR), which interactively adjust the lighting of training and input photos. Our method can be directly integrated into state-of-the-art exemplar-based methods to improve their robustness with ignorable computational cost

#8 Learning to Hallucinate Face Images via Component Generation and Enhancement [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Yibing Song ; Jiawei Zhang ; Shengfeng He ; Linchao Bao ; Qingxiong Yang

We propose a two-stage method for face hallucination. First, we generate facial components of the input image using CNNs. These components represent the basic facial structures. Second, we synthesize fine-grained facial structures from high resolution training images. The details of these structures are transferred into facial components for enhancement. Therefore, we generate facial components to approximate ground truth global appearance in the first stage and enhance them through recovering details in the second stage. The experiments demonstrate that our method performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods.

#9 Cross-Granularity Graph Inference for Semantic Video Object Segmentation [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Huiling Wang ; Tinghuai Wang ; Ke Chen ; Joni-Kristian Kämäräinen

We address semantic video object segmentation via a novel cross-granularity hierarchical graphical model to integrate tracklet and object proposal reasoning with superpixel labeling. Tracklet characterizes varying spatial-temporal relations of video object which, however, quite often suffers from sporadic local outliers. In order to acquire high-quality tracklets, we propose a transductive inference model which is capable of calibrating short-range noisy object tracklets with respect to long-range dependencies and high-level context cues. In the center of this work lies a new paradigm of semantic video object segmentation beyond modeling appearance and motion of objects locally, where the semantic label is inferred by jointly exploiting multi-scale contextual information and spatial-temporal relations of video object. We evaluate our method on two popular semantic video object segmentation benchmarks and demonstrate that it advances the state-of-the-art by achieving superior accuracy performance than other leading methods.

#10 Is My Object in This Video? Reconstruction-based Object Search in Videos [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Authors: Tan Yu ; Jingjing Meng ; Junsong Yuan

This paper addresses the problem of video-level object instance search, which aims to retrieve the videos in the database that contain a given query object instance. Without prior knowledge about "when" and "where" an object of interest may appear in a video, determining "whether" a video contains the target object is computationally prohibitive, as it requires exhaustively matching the query against all possible spatial-temporal locations in each video that an object may appear. To alleviate the computational and memory cost, we propose the Reconstruction-based Object SEarch (ROSE) method.It characterizes a huge corpus of features of possible spatial-temporal locations in the video into the parameters of the reconstruction model. Since the memory cost of storing reconstruction model is much less than that of storing features of possible spatial-temporal locations in the video, the efficiency of the search is significantly boosted. Comprehensive experiments on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed ROSE method.

#11 Image Gradient-based Joint Direct Visual Odometry for Stereo Camera [PDF] [Copy] [Kimi]

Author: Jianke Zhu

Visual odometry is an important research problem for computer vision and robotics. In general, the feature-based visual odometry methods heavily rely on the accurate correspondences between local salient points, while the direct approaches could make full use of whole image and perform dense 3D reconstruction simultaneously. However, the direct visual odometry usually suffers from the drawback of getting stuck at local optimum especially with large displacement, which may lead to the inferior results. To tackle this critical problem, we propose a novel scheme for stereo odometry in this paper, which is able to improve the convergence with more accurate pose. The key of our approach is a dual Jacobian optimization that is fused into a multi-scale pyramid scheme. Moreover, we introduce a gradient-based feature representation, which enjoys the merit of being robust to illumination changes. Furthermore, a joint direct odometry approach is proposed to incorporate the information from the last frame and previous keyframes. We have conducted the experimental evaluation on the challenging KITTI odometry benchmark, whose promising results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective for stereo visual odometry.