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Word embeddings are known to exhibit stereotypical biases towards gender, race, religion, among other criteria. Severa fairness metrics have been proposed in order to automatically quantify these biases. Although all metrics have a similar objective, the relationship between them is by no means clear. Two issues that prevent a clean comparison is that they operate with different inputs, and that their outputs are incompatible with each other. In this paper we propose WEFE, the word embeddings fairness evaluation framework, to encapsulate, evaluate and compare fairness metrics. Our framework needs a list of pre-trained embeddings and a set of fairness criteria, and it is based on checking correlations between fairness rankings induced by these criteria. We conduct a case study showing that rankings produced by existing fairness methods tend to correlate when measuring gender bias. This correlation is considerably less for other biases like race or religion. We also compare the fairness rankings with an embedding benchmark showing that there is no clear correlation between fairness and good performance in downstream tasks.

We turn the definition of individual fairness on its head - rather than ascertaining the fairness of a model given a predetermined metric, we find a metric for a given model that satisfies individual fairness. This can facilitate the discussion on the fairness of a model, addressing the issue that it may be difficult to specify a priori a suitable metric. Our contributions are twofold: First, we introduce the definition of a minimal metric and characterize the behavior of models in terms of minimal metrics. Second, for more complicated models, we apply the mechanism of randomized smoothing from adversarial robustness to make them individually fair under a given weighted Lp metric. Our experiments show that adapting the minimal metrics of linear models to more complicated neural networks can lead to meaningful and interpretable fairness guarantees at little cost to utility.

Effective complements to human judgment, artificial intelligence techniques have started to aid human decisions in complicated social decision problems across the world. Automated machine learning/deep learning(ML/DL) classification models, through quantitative modeling, have the potential to improve upon human decisions in a wide range of decision problems on social resource allocation such as Medicaid and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP, commonly referred to as Food Stamps). However, given the limitations in ML/DL model design, these algorithms may fail to leverage various factors for decision making, resulting in improper decisions that allocate resources to individuals who may not be in the most need of such resource. In view of such an issue, we propose in this paper the strategy of fairgroups, based on the legal doctrine of disparate impact, to improve fairness in prediction outcomes. Experiments on various datasets demonstrate that our fairgroup construction method effectively boosts the fairness in automated decision making, while maintaining high prediction accuracy.

We propose a general method for generating counterfactual explanations (CFXs) for a range of Bayesian Network Classifiers (BCs), e.g. single- or multi-label, binary or multidimensional. We focus on explanations built from relations of (critical and potential) influence between variables, indicating the reasons for classifications, rather than any probabilistic information. We show by means of a theoretical analysis of CFXs’ properties that they serve the purpose of indicating (potentially) pivotal factors in the classification process, whose absence would give rise to different classifications. We then prove empirically for various BCs that CFXs provide useful information in real world settings, e.g. when race plays a part in parole violation prediction, and show that they have inherent advantages over existing explanation methods in the literature.

Natural language processing (NLP) models have been increasingly used in sensitive application domains including credit scoring, insurance, and loan assessment. Hence, it is critical to know that the decisions made by NLP models are free of unfair bias toward certain subpopulation groups. In this paper, we propose a novel framework employing metamorphic testing, a well-established software testing scheme, to test NLP models and find discriminatory inputs that provoke fairness violations. Furthermore, inspired by recent breakthroughs in the certified robustness of machine learning, we formulate NLP model fairness in a practical setting as (ε, k)-fairness and accordingly smooth the model predictions to mitigate fairness violations. We demonstrate our technique using popular (commercial) NLP models, and successfully flag thousands of discriminatory inputs that can cause fairness violations. We further enhance the evaluated models by adding certified fairness guarantee at a modest cost.

Bipartite b-matching, where agents on one side of a market are matched to one or more agents or items on the other, is a classical model that is used in myriad application areas such as healthcare, advertising, education, and general resource allocation. Traditionally, the primary goal of such models is to maximize a linear function of the constituent matches (e.g., linear social welfare maximization) subject to some constraints. Recent work has studied a new goal of balancing whole-match diversity and economic efficiency, where the objective is instead a monotone submodular function over the matching. Basic versions of this problem are solvable in polynomial time. In this work, we prove that the problem of simultaneously maximizing diversity along several features (e.g., country of citizenship, gender, skills) is NP-hard. To address this problem, we develop the first combinatorial algorithm that constructs provably-optimal diverse b-matchings in pseudo-polynomial time. We also provide a Mixed-Integer Quadratic formulation for the same problem and show that our method guarantees optimal solutions and takes less computation time for a reviewer assignment application. The source code is made available at https://github.com/faezahmed/diverse_matching.

A key problem in Belief-Desire-Intention agents is how an agent progresses its intentions, i.e., which plans should be selected and how the execution of these plans should be interleaved so as to achieve the agent’s goals. Previous approaches to the intention progression problem assume the agent has perfect information about the state of the environment. However, in many real-world applications, an agent may be uncertain about whether an environment condition holds, and hence whether a particular plan is applicable or an action is executable. In this paper, we propose SAU, a Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS)-based scheduler for intention progression problems where the agent’s beliefs are uncertain. We evaluate the performance of our approach experimentally by varying the degree of uncertainty in the agent’s beliefs. The results suggest that SAU is able to successfully achieve the agent’s goals even in settings where there is significant uncertainty in the agent’s beliefs.

We investigate the issue of manipulability for social ranking rules, where the goal is to rank individuals given the ranking of coalitions formed by them and each individual prefers to reach the highest positions in the social ranking. This problem lies at the intersection of computational social choice and the algorithmic theory of power indices. Different social ranking rules have been recently proposed and studied from an axiomatic point of view. In this paper, we focus on rules representing three classical approaches in social choice theory: the marginal contribution approach, the lexicographic approach and the (ceteris paribus) majority one. We first consider some particular members of these families analysing their resistance to a malicious behaviour of individuals. Then, we analyze the computational complexity of manipulation, and complete our theoretical results with simulations in order to analyse the manipulation frequencies and to assess the effects of manipulations.

We consider the classic problem of fairly allocating indivisible goods among agents with additive valuation functions and explore the connection between two prominent fairness notions: maximum Nash welfare (MNW) and envy-freeness up to any good (EFX). We establish that an MNW allocation is always EFX as long as there are at most two possible values for the goods, whereas this implication is no longer true for three or more distinct values. As a notable consequence, this proves the existence of EFX allocations for these restricted valuation functions. While the efficient computation of an MNW allocation for two possible values remains an open problem, we present a novel algorithm for directly constructing EFX allocations in this setting. Finally, we study the question of whether an MNW allocation implies any EFX guarantee for general additive valuation functions under a natural new interpretation of approximate EFX allocations.

Incomplete GDL-based algorithms including Max-sum and its variants are important methods for multi-agent optimization. However, they face a significant scalability challenge as the computational overhead grows exponentially with respect to the arity of each utility function. Generic Domain Pruning (GDP) technique reduces the computational effort by performing a one-shot pruning to filter out suboptimal entries. Unfortunately, GDP could perform poorly when dealing with dense local utilities and ties which widely exist in many domains. In this paper, we present several novel sorting-based acceleration algorithms by alleviating the effect of densely distributed local utilities. Specifically, instead of one-shot pruning in GDP, we propose to integrate both search and pruning to iteratively reduce the search space. Besides, we cope with the utility ties by organizing the search space of tied utilities into AND/OR trees to enable branch-and-bound. Finally, we propose a discretization mechanism to offer a tradeoff between the reconstruction overhead and the pruning efficiency. We demonstrate the superiorities of our algorithms over the state-of-the-art from both theoretical and experimental perspectives.

We consider a multi-agent resource allocation setting in which an agent's utility may decrease or increase when an item is allocated. We take the group envy-freeness concept that is well-established in the literature and present stronger and relaxed versions that are especially suitable for the allocation of indivisible items. Of particular interest is a concept called group envy-freeness up to one item (GEF1). We then present a clear taxonomy of the fairness concepts. We study which fairness concepts guarantee the existence of a fair allocation under which preference domain. For two natural classes of additive utilities, we design polynomial-time algorithms to compute a GEF1 allocation. We also prove that checking whether a given allocation satisfies GEF1 is coNP-complete when there are either only goods, only chores or both.

We study the problem of allocating indivisible goods among agents that have an identical subadditive valuation over the goods. The extent of fair- ness and efficiency of allocations is measured by the generalized means of the values that the alloca- tions generate among the agents. Parameterized by an exponent term p, generalized-mean welfares en- compass multiple well-studied objectives, such as social welfare, Nash social welfare, and egalitarian welfare. We establish that, under identical subadditive valu- ations and in the demand oracle model, one can efficiently find a single allocation that approximates the optimal generalized-mean welfare—to within a factor of 40—uniformly for all p ∈ (−∞,1]. Hence, by way of a constant-factor approximation algorithm, we obtain novel results for maximizing Nash social welfare and egalitarian welfare for identical subadditive valuations.

We investigate opinion dynamics in multi-agent networks when there exists a bias toward one of two possible opinions; for example, reflecting a status quo vs a superior alternative. Starting with all agents sharing an initial opinion representing the status quo, the system evolves in steps. In each step, one agent selected uniformly at random adopts with some probability a the superior opinion, and with probability 1 - a it follows an underlying update rule to revise its opinion on the basis of those held by its neighbors. We analyze the convergence of the resulting process under two well-known update rules, namely majority and voter. The framework we propose exhibits a rich structure, with a nonobvious interplay between topology and underlying update rule. For example, for the voter rule we show that the speed of convergence bears no significant dependence on the underlying topology, whereas the picture changes completely under the majority rule, where network density negatively affects convergence. We believe that the model we propose is at the same time simple, rich, and modular, affording mathematical characterization of the interplay between bias, underlying opinion dynamics, and social structure in a unified setting.

We present a formal framework that allows individual and group of agents to reason about their trust toward other agents. In particular, we propose a branching time temporal logic BT which includes operators that express concepts such as everyone trust, distributed trust and propagated trust. We analyze the satisfiability and model checking problems of this logic using a reduction technique.

Given a set of individuals qualifying or disqualifying each other, group identification is the task of identifying a socially qualified subgroup of individuals. Social qualification depends on the specific rule used to aggregate individual qualifications. The bribery problem in this context asks how many agents need to change their qualifications in order to change the outcome. Complementing previous results showing polynomial-time solvability or NP-hardness of bribery for various social rules in the constructive (aiming at making specific individuals socially qualified) or destructive (aiming at making specific individuals socially disqualified) setting, we provide a comprehensive picture of the parameterized computational complexity landscape. Conceptually, we also consider a more fine-grained concept of bribery cost, where we ask how many single qualifications need to be changed, and a more general bribery goal that combines the constructive and destructive setting.

Approval-based multiwinner voting rules have recently received much attention in the Computational Social Choice literature. Such rules aggregate approval ballots and determine a winning committee of alternatives. To assess effectiveness, we propose to employ new noise models that are specifically tailored for approval votes and committees. These models take as input a ground truth committee and return random approval votes to be thought of as noisy estimates of the ground truth. A minimum robustness requirement for an approval-based multiwinner voting rule is to return the ground truth when applied to profiles with sufficiently many noisy votes. Our results indicate that approval-based multiwinner voting can indeed be robust to reasonable noise. We further refine this finding by presenting a hierarchy of rules in terms of how robust to noise they are.

Decentralized online planning can be an attractive paradigm for cooperative multi-agent systems, due to improved scalability and robustness. A key difficulty of such approach lies in making accurate predictions about the decisions of other agents. In this paper, we present a trainable online decentralized planning algorithm based on decentralized Monte Carlo Tree Search, combined with models of teammates learned from previous episodic runs. By only allowing one agent to adapt its models at a time, under the assumption of ideal policy approximation, successive iterations of our method are guaranteed to improve joint policies, and eventually lead to convergence to a Nash equilibrium. We test the efficiency of the algorithm by performing experiments in several scenarios of the spatial task allocation environment introduced in [Claes et al., 2015]. We show that deep learning and convolutional neural networks can be employed to produce accurate policy approximators which exploit the spatial features of the problem, and that the proposed algorithm improves over the baseline planning performance for particularly challenging domain configurations.

The Chamberlin-Courant and Monroe rules are fundamental and well-studied rules in the literature of multi-winner elections. The problem of determining if there exists a committee of size k that has a Chamberlin-Courant (respectively, Monroe) dissatisfaction score of at most r is known to be NP-complete. We consider the following natural problems in this setting: a) given a committee S of size k as input, is it an optimal k-sized committee?, and b) given a candidate c and a committee size k, does there exist an optimal k-sized committee that contains c? In this work, we resolve the complexity of both problems for the Chamberlin-Courant and Monroe voting rules in the settings of rankings as well as approval ballots. We show that verifying if a given committee is optimal is coNP-complete whilst the latter problem is complete for Theta_2^P. Our contribution fills an essential gap in the literature for these important multi-winner rules.

In the multidimensional stable roommate problem, agents have to be allocated to rooms and have preferences over sets of potential roommates. We study the complexity of finding good allocations of agents to rooms under the assumption that agents have diversity preferences (Bredereck, Elkind, Igarashi, AAMAS'19): each agent belongs to one of the two types (e.g., juniors and seniors, artists and engineers), and agents’ preferences over rooms depend solely on the fraction of agents of their own type among their potential roommates. We consider various solution concepts for this setting, such as core and exchange stability, Pareto optimality and envy-freeness. On the negative side, we prove that envy-free, core stable or (strongly) exchange stable outcomes may fail to exist and that the associated decision problems are NP-complete. On the positive side, we show that these problems are in FPT with respect to the room size, which is not the case for the general stable roommate problem.

In parliamentary elections, parties compete for a limited, typically fixed number of seats. We study the complexity of the following bribery-style problem: Given the distribution of votes among the parties, what is the smallest number of voters that need to be convinced to vote for our party, so that it gets a desired number of seats. We also run extensive experiments on real-world election data and measure the effectiveness of our method.

We study higher statistical moments of Distortion for randomized social choice in a metric implicit utilitarian model. The Distortion of a social choice mechanism is the expected approximation factor with respect to the optimal utilitarian social cost (OPT). The k'th moment of Distortion is the expected approximation factor with respect to the k'th power of OPT. We consider mechanisms that elicit alternatives by randomly sampling voters for their favorite alternative. We design two families of mechanisms that provide constant (with respect to the number of voters and alternatives) k'th moment of Distortion using just k samples if all voters can then participate in a vote among the proposed alternatives, or 2k-1 samples if only the sampled voters can participate. We also show that these numbers of samples are tight. Such mechanisms deviate from a constant approximation to OPT with probability that drops exponentially in the number of samples, independent of the total number of voters and alternatives. We conclude with simulations on real-world Participatory Budgeting data to qualitatively complement our theoretical insights.

Prompt-LTL extends Linear Temporal Logic with a bounded version of the ``eventually'' operator to express temporal requirements such as bounding waiting times. We study assume-guarantee synthesis for prompt-LTL: the goal is to construct a system such that for all environments satisfying a first prompt-LTL formula (the assumption) the system composed with this environment satisfies a second prompt-LTL formula (the guarantee). This problem has been open for a decade. We construct an algorithm for solving it and show that, like classical LTL synthesis, it is 2-EXPTIME-complete.

We derive conditions under which a peer-consistency mechanism can be used to elicit truthful data from non-trusted rational agents when an aggregate statistic of the collected data affects the amount of their incentives to lie. Furthermore, we discuss the relative saving that can be achieved by the mechanism, compared to the rational outcome, if no such mechanism was implemented. Our work is motivated by distributed platforms, where decentralized data oracles collect information about real-world events, based on the aggregate information provided by often self-interested participants. We compare our theoretical observations with numerical simulations on two public real datasets.

We study proportionality in approval-based multiwinner elections with a variable number of winners, where both the size and identity of the winning committee are informed by voters' opinions. While proportionality has been studied in multiwinner elections with a fixed number of winners, it has not been considered in the variable number of winners setting. The measure of proportionality we consider is average satisfaction (AS), which intuitively measures the number of agreements on average between sufficiently large and cohesive groups of voters and the output of the voting rule. First, we show an upper bound on AS that any deterministic rule can provide, and that straightforward adaptations of deterministic rules from the fixed number of winners setting do not achieve better than a 1/2 approximation to AS even for large numbers of candidates. We then prove that a natural randomized rule achieves a 29/32 approximation to AS.

Network Creation Games(NCGs) model the creation of decentralized communication networks like the Internet. In such games strategic agents corresponding to network nodes selfishly decide with whom to connect to optimize some objective function. Past research intensively analyzed models where the agents strive for a central position in the network. This models agents optimizing the network for low-latency applications like VoIP. However, with today's abundance of streaming services it is important to ensure that the created network can satisfy the increased bandwidth demand. To the best of our knowledge, this natural problem of the decentralized strategic creation of networks with sufficient bandwidth has not yet been studied. We introduce Flow-Based NCGs where the selfish agents focus on bandwidth instead of latency. In essence, budget-constrained agents create network links to maximize their minimum or average network flow value to all other network nodes. Equivalently, this can also be understood as agents who create links to increase their connectivity and thus also the robustness of the network. For this novel type of NCG we prove that pure Nash equilibria exist, we give a simple algorithm for computing optimal networks, we show that the Price of Stability is 1 and we prove an (almost) tight bound of 2 on the Price of Anarchy. Last but not least, we show that our models do not admit a potential function.