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In the literature, we find reductions from 3SAT to Max2SAT. These reductions are based on the usage of a gadget, i.e., a combinatorial structure that allows translating constraints of one problem to constraints of another. Unfortunately, the generation of these gadgets lacks an intuitive or efficient method. In this paper, we provide an efficient and constructive method for Reducing SAT to Max2SAT and show empirical results of how MaxSAT solvers are more efficient than SAT solvers solving the translation of hard formulas for Resolution.

CP-based Lagrangian relaxation (CP-LR) is an efficient optimization technique that combines cost-based filtering with Lagrangian relaxation in a constraint programming context. The state-of-the-art filtering algorithms for the WeightedCircuit constraint that encodes the traveling salesman problem (TSP) are based on this approach. In this paper, we propose an improved CP-LR approach that locally modifies the Lagrangian multipliers in order to increase the number of filtered values. We also introduce two new algorithms based on the latter to filter WeightedCircuit. The experimental results on TSP instances show that our algorithms allow significant gains on the resolution time and the size of the search space when compared to the state-of-the-art implementation.

We build on a recently proposed method for explaining solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. An explanation here is a sequence of simple inference steps, where the simplicity of an inference step is measured by the number and types of constraints and facts used, and where the sequence explains all logical consequences of the problem. We build on these formal foundations and tackle two emerging questions, namely how to generate explanations that are provably optimal (with respect to the given cost metric) and how to generate them efficiently. To answer these questions, we develop 1) an implicit hitting set algorithm for finding optimal unsatisfiable subsets; 2) a method to reduce multiple calls for (optimal) unsatisfiable subsets to a single call that takes constraints on the subset into account, and 3) a method for re-using relevant information over multiple calls to these algorithms. The method is also applicable to other problems that require finding cost-optimal unsatiable subsets. We specifically show that this approach can be used to effectively find sequences of optimal explanation steps for constraint satisfaction problems like logic grid puzzles.

Counting integer solutions of linear constraints has found interesting applications in various fields. It is equivalent to the problem of counting integer points inside a polytope. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for this problem become too slow for even a modest number of variables. In this paper, we propose new decomposition techniques which target both the elimination of variables as well as inequalities using structural properties of counting problems. Experiments on extensive benchmarks show that our algorithm improves the performance of state-of-the-art counting algorithms, while the overhead is usually negligible compared to the running time of integer counting.

Graph homomorphism problems involve finding adjacency-preserving mappings between two given graphs. Although theoretically hard, these problems can often be solved in practice using constraint programming algorithms. We show how techniques from the state-of-the-art in subgraph isomorphism solving can be applied to broader graph homomorphism problems, and introduce a new form of filtering based upon clique-finding. We demonstrate empirically that this filtering is effective for the locally injective graph homomorphism and subgraph isomorphism problems, and gives the first practical constraint programming approach to finding general graph homomorphisms.

We introduce backdoor DNFs, as a tool to measure the theoretical hardness of CNF formulas. Like backdoor sets and backdoor trees, backdoor DNFs are defined relative to a tractable class of CNF formulas. Each conjunctive term of a backdoor DNF defines a partial assignment that moves the input CNF formula into the base class. Backdoor DNFs are more expressive and potentially smaller than their predecessors backdoor sets and backdoor trees. We establish the fixed-parameter tractability of the backdoor DNF detection problem. Our results hold for the fundamental base classes Horn and 2CNF, and their combination. We complement our theoretical findings by an empirical study. Our experiments show that backdoor DNFs provide a significant improvement over their predecessors.

Robust learning in expressive languages with real-world data continues to be a challenging task. Numerous conventional methods appeal to heuristics without any assurances of robustness. While probably approximately correct (PAC) Semantics offers strong guarantees, learning explicit representations is not tractable, even in propositional logic. However, recent work on so-called “implicit" learning has shown tremendous promise in terms of obtaining polynomial-time results for fragments of first-order logic. In this work, we extend implicit learning in PAC-Semantics to handle noisy data in the form of intervals and threshold uncertainty in the language of linear arithmetic. We prove that our extended framework keeps the existing polynomial-time complexity guarantees. Furthermore, we provide the first empirical investigation of this hitherto purely theoretical framework. Using benchmark problems, we show that our implicit approach to learning optimal linear programming objective constraints significantly outperforms an explicit approach in practice.

Hypertree width is a prominent hypergraph invariant with many algorithmic applications in constraint satisfaction and databases. We propose a novel characterization for hypertree width in terms of linear elimination orderings. We utilize this characterization to generate a new SAT encoding that we evaluate on an extensive set of benchmark instances. We compare it to state-of-the-art exact methods for computing optimal hypertree width. Our results show that the encoding based on the new characterization is not only significantly more compact than known encodings but also outperforms the other methods.