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Dung’s Argumentation Framework (AF) has been extended in several directions. Among the numerous proposed extensions, three of them seem to be of particular interest and have correlations between them. These extensions are: constrained AF (CAF), where AF is augmented with (strong) constraints; epistemic AF (EAF), where AF is augmented with epistemic constraints; and incomplete AF (iAF), where arguments and attacks can be uncertain. While the complexity and expressiveness of CAF and iAF have been studied, that of EAF has not been explored so far. In this paper we investigate the complexity and expressivity of EAF. To this end, we first introduce the Labeled CAF (LCAF), a variation of CAF where constraints are defined over the alphabet of labeled arguments. Then, we investigate the complexity of credulous and skeptical reasoning and show that: i) EAF is more expressive than iAF (under preferred semantics), ii) although LCAF is a restriction of EAF where modal operators are not allowed, these frameworks have the same complexity, iii) the results for LCAF close a gap in the characterization of the complexity of CAF. Interestingly, even though EAF has the same complexity as LCAF, it allows modeling domain knowledge in a more natural and easy-to-understand way.

This paper studies the design and analysis of approximation algorithms for aggregating preferences over combinatorial domains, represented using Conditional Preference Networks (CP-nets). Its focus is on aggregating preferences over so-called swaps, for which optimal solutions in general are already known to be of exponential size. We first analyze a trivial 2-approximation algorithm that simply outputs the best of the given input preferences, and establish a structural condition under which the approximation ratio of this algorithm is improved to 4/3. We then propose a polynomial-time approximation algorithm whose outputs are provably no worse than those of the trivial algorithm, but often substantially better. A family of problem instances is presented for which our improved algorithm produces optimal solutions, while, for any ε, the trivial algorithm cannot attain a (2- ε)-approximation. These results may lead to the first polynomial-time approximation algorithm that solves the CP-net aggregation problem for swaps with an approximation ratio substantially better than 2.

Query answering for Knowledge Bases (KBs) amounts to extracting information from the various models of a KB, and presenting the user with an object that represents such information. In the vast majority of cases, this object consists of those tuples of constants that satisfy the query expression either in every model (certain answers) or in some model (possible answers). However, similarly to the case of incomplete databases, both these forms of answers are a lossy representation of all the knowledge inferable from the query and the queried KB. In this paper, we illustrate a formal framework to characterize the information that query answers for KBs are able to represent. As a first application of the framework, we study the informativeness of current query answering approaches, including the recently introduced partial answers. We then define a novel notion of answers, allowing repetition of variables across answer tuples. We show that these answers are capable of representing a meaningful form of information, and we also study their data complexity properties.

We present a novel computational approach to resolving conflicts among norms by nonmonotonic normative reasoning (in constrained I/O logics). Our approach extends standard sequent-based proof systems and makes them more adequate to nonmonotonic reasoning by adding to the sequents annotations that keep track of what is known about the defeasible status of the derived sequents. This makes transparent the reasons according to which norms should be applicable or inapplicable, and accordingly the sequents that make use of such norms are accepted or retracted. We also show that this proof theoretic method has tight links to the semantics of formal argumentation frameworks. The outcome of this paper is thus a threefold characterization result that relates, in the context of nonmonotonic normative reasoning, three traditional ingredients of AI-based reasoning methods: maximally consistent sets of premises (in constrained I/O logics), derived sequents (which are accepted in corresponding annotated sequent calculi), and logical arguments (that belong to the grounded extensions of the induced logical argumentation frameworks).

Explaining an answer to a Datalog query is an essential task towards Explainable AI, especially nowadays where Datalog plays a critical role in the development of ontology-based applications. A well-established approach for explaining a query answer is the so-called why-provenance, which essentially collects all the subsets of the input database that can be used to obtain that answer via some derivation process, typically represented as a proof tree. It is well known, however, that computing the why-provenance for Datalog queries is computationally expensive, and thus, very few attempts can be found in the literature. The goal of this work is to demonstrate how off-the-shelf SAT solvers can be exploited towards an efficient computation of the why-provenance for Datalog queries. Interestingly, our SAT-based approach allows us to build the why-provenance in an incremental fashion, that is, one explanation at a time, which is much more useful in a practical context than the one-shot computation of the whole set of explanations as done by existing approaches.

The ability to generalise from a small number of examples is a fundamental challenge in machine learning. To tackle this challenge, we introduce an inductive logic programming (ILP) approach that combines negation and predicate invention. Combining these two features allows an ILP system to generalise better by learning rules with universally quantified body-only variables. We implement our idea in NOPI, which can learn normal logic programs with predicate invention, including Datalog programs with stratified negation. Our experimental results on multiple domains show that our approach can improve predictive accuracies and learning times.

We consider the NP-hard problem of finding a smallest decision tree representing a classification instance in terms of a partially defined Boolean function. Small decision trees are desirable to provide an interpretable model for the given data. We show that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the rank-width of the incidence graph of the given classification instance. Our algorithm proceeds by dynamic programming using an NLC decomposition obtained from a rank-width decomposition. The key to the algorithm is a succinct representation of partial solutions. This allows us to limit the space and time requirements for each dynamic programming step in terms of the parameter.

This paper studies a stable model semantics for Description Logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) and for (possibly cyclic) terminologies, ultimately showing that terminologies under the proposed semantics can be equipped with effective reasoning algorithms. The semantics is derived using Quantified Equilibrium Logic, and---in contrast to the usual semantics of DLs based on classical logic---supports default negation and allows to combine the open-world and the closed-world assumptions in a natural way. Towards understanding the computational properties of this and related formalisms, we show a strong undecidability result that applies not only to KBs under the stable model semantics, but also to the more basic setting of minimal model reasoning. Specifically, we show that concept satisfiability in minimal models of an ALCIO KB is undecidable. We then turn our attention to (possibly cyclic) DL terminologies, where ontological axioms are limited to definitions of concept names in terms of complex concepts. This restriction still yields a very rich setting. We show that standard reasoning problems, like concept satisfiability and subsumption, are ExpTime-complete for terminologies expressed in ALCI under the stable model semantics.

Assumption-based argumentation (ABA) is a powerful defeasible reasoning formalism which is based on the interplay of assumptions, their contraries, and inference rules. ABA with preferences (ABA+) generalizes the basic model by allowing qualitative comparison between assumptions. The integration of preferences however comes with a cost. In ABA+, the evaluation under two central and well-established semantics---grounded and complete semantics---is not guaranteed to yield an outcome. Moreover, while ABA frameworks without preferences allow for a graph-based representation in Dung-style frameworks, an according instantiation for general ABA+ frameworks has not been established so far. In this work, we tackle both issues: First, we develop a novel abstract argumentation formalism based on set-to-set attacks. We show that our so-called Hyper Argumentation Frameworks (HYPAFs) capture ABA+. Second, we propose relaxed variants of complete and grounded semantics for HYPAFs that yield an extension for all frameworks by design, while still faithfully generalizing the established semantics of Dung-style Argumentation Frameworks. We exploit the newly established correspondence between ABA+ and HYPAFs to obtain variants for grounded and complete ABA+ semantics that are guaranteed to yield an outcome. Finally, we discuss basic properties and provide a complexity analysis. Along the way, we settle the computational complexity of several ABA+ semantics.

Epistemic planning is useful in situations where multiple agents have different knowledge and beliefs about the world, such as in robot-human interaction. One aspect that has been largely neglected in the literature is planning with observations in the presence of false beliefs. This is a particularly challenging problem because it requires belief revision. We introduce a simple specification language for reasoning about actions with knowledge and belief. We demonstrate our approach on well-known false-belief tasks such as the Sally-Anne Task and compare it to other action languages. Our logic leads to an epistemic planning formalism that is expressive enough to model second-order false-belief tasks, yet has the same computational complexity as classical planning.

Dynamical systems are abstract models of interaction between space and time. They are often used in fields such as physics and engineering to understand complex processes, but due to their general nature, they have found applications for studying computational processes, interaction in multi-agent systems, machine learning algorithms and other computer science related phenomena. In the vast majority of applications, a dynamical system consists of the action of a continuous `transition function' on a metric space. In this work, we consider decidable formal systems for reasoning about such structures. Spatial logics can be traced back to the 1940's, but our work follows a more dynamic turn that these logics have taken due to two recent developments: the study of the topological mu-calculus, and the the integration of linear temporal logic with logics based on the Cantor derivative. In this paper, we combine dynamic topological logics based on the Cantor derivative and the `next point in time' operators with an expressively complete fixed point operator to produce a combination of the topological mu-calculus with linear temporal logic. We show that the resulting logics are decidable and have a natural axiomatisation. Moreover, we prove that these logics are complete for interpretations on the Cantor space, the rational numbers, and subspaces thereof.

Expressing system specifications using Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas, formalising programs using Kripke structures, and then model checking the system is an established workflow in program verification and has wide applications in AI. In this paper, we consider the task of model enumeration, which asks for a uniform stream of output systems that satisfy the given specification. We show that, given a CTL formula and a system (potentially falsified by the formula), enumerating satisfying submodels is always hard for CTL--regardless of which subset of CTL-operators is considered. As a silver lining on the horizon, we present fragments via restrictions on the allowed Boolean functions that still allow for fast enumeration.

The need to model and analyse dynamic systems operating over complex data is ubiquitous in AI and neighboring areas, in particular business process management. Analysing such data-aware systems is a notoriously difficult problem, as they are intrinsically infinite-state. Existing approaches work for specific datatypes, and/or limit themselves to the verification of safety properties. In this paper, we lift both such limitations, studying for the first time linear-time verification for so-called data-aware processes modulo theories (DMTs), from the foundational and practical point of view. The DMT model is very general, as it supports processes operating over variables that can store arbitrary types of data, ranging over infinite domains and equipped with domain-specific predicates. Specifically, we provide four contributions. First, we devise a semi-decision procedure for linear-time verification of DMTs, which works for a very large class of datatypes obeying to mild model-theoretic assumptions. The procedure relies on a unique combination of automata-theoretic and cover computation techniques to respectively deal with linear-time properties and datatypes. Second, we identify an abstract, semantic property that guarantees the existence of a faithful finite-state abstraction of the original system, and show that our method becomes a decision procedure in this case. Third, we identify concrete, checkable classes of systems that satisfy this property, generalising several results in the literature. Finally, we present an implementation and an experimental evaluation over a benchmark of real-world data-aware business processes.

Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a generic problem modeling and solving framework with a strong focus on knowledge representation and a rapid growth of industrial applications. So far, the study of complexity resulted in characterizing hardness and determining their sources, fine-grained insights in the form of dichotomy-style results, as well as detailed parameterized complexity landscapes. Unfortunately, for the well-known parameter treewidth disjunctive programs require double-exponential runtime under reasonable complexity assumptions. This quickly becomes out of reach. We deal with the classification of structural parameters for disjunctive ASP on the program's rule structure (incidence graph). First, we provide a polynomial kernel to obtain single-exponential runtime in terms of vertex cover size, despite subset-minimization being not represented in the program’s structure. Then we turn our attention to strictly better structural parameters between vertex cover size and treewidth. Here, we provide double-exponential lower bounds for the most prominent parameters in that range: treedepth, feedback vertex size, and cliquewidth. Based on this, we argue that unfortunately our options beyond vertex cover size are limited. Our results provide an in-depth hardness study, relying on a novel reduction from normal to disjunctive programs, trading the increase of complexity for an exponential parameter compression.

Recent research on predicting the binding affinity between drug molecules and proteins use representations learned, through unsupervised learning techniques, from large databases of molecule SMILES and protein sequences. While these representations have significantly enhanced the predictions, they are usually based on a limited set of modalities, and they do not exploit available knowledge about existing relations among molecules and proteins. Our study reveals that enhanced representations, derived from multimodal knowledge graphs describing relations among molecules and proteins, lead to state-of-the-art results in well-established benchmarks (first place in the leaderboard for Therapeutics Data Commons benchmark ``Drug-Target Interaction Domain Generalization Benchmark", with an improvement of 8 points with respect to previous best result). Moreover, our results significantly surpass those achieved in standard benchmarks by using conventional pre-trained representations that rely only on sequence or SMILES data. We release our multimodal knowledge graphs, integrating data from seven public data sources, and which contain over 30 million triples. Pretrained models from our proposed graphs and benchmark task source code are also released.

Many inductive logic programming approaches struggle to learn programs from noisy data. To overcome this limitation, we introduce an approach that learns minimal description length programs from noisy data, including recursive programs. Our experiments on several domains, including drug design, game playing, and program synthesis, show that our approach can outperform existing approaches in terms of predictive accuracies and scale to moderate amounts of noise.

This paper integrates weak decomposable negation normal form (wDNNF) circuits, introduced by Akshay et al. in 2018, into the knowledge compilation map. This circuit type generalises decomposable negation normal form (DNNF) circuits in such a way that they allow a restricted form of sharing variables among the inputs of a conjunction node. We show that wDNNF circuits have the same properties as DNNF circuits regarding the queries and transformations presented in the knowledge compilation map, whilst being strictly more succinct than DNNF circuits (that is, they can represent Boolean functions compactly). We also present and evaluate a knowledge compiler, called Bella, for converting CNF formulae into wDNNF circuits. Our experiments demonstrate that wDNNF circuits are suitable for configuration instances.

Answer Set Programming (ASP) has emerged as a promising paradigm in knowledge representation and automated reason- ing owing to its ability to model hard combinatorial problems from diverse domains in a natural way. Building on advances in propositional SAT solving, the past two decades have wit- nessed the emergence of well-engineered systems for solv- ing the answer set satisfiability problem, i.e., finding mod- els or answer sets for a given answer set program. In re- cent years, there has been growing interest in problems be- yond satisfiability, such as model counting, in the context of ASP. Akin to the early days of propositional model count- ing, state-of-the-art exact answer set counters do not scale well beyond small instances. Exact ASP counters struggle with handling larger input formulas. The primary contribu- tion of this paper is a new ASP counting framework, called sharpASP, which counts answer sets avoiding larger input formulas. This relies on an alternative way of defining answer sets that allows lifting of key techniques developed in the con- text of propositional model counting. Our extensive empirical analysis over 1470 benchmarks demonstrates significant per- formance gain over current state-of-the-art exact answer set counters. Specifically, by using sharpASP, we were able to solve 1062 benchmarks with PAR2 score of 3082 whereas using prior state-of-the-art, we could only solve 895 bench- marks with PAR2 score of 4205, all other experimental con- ditions being the same.

In this paper, we introduce the problem of rewriting finite formal languages using syntactic macros such that the rewriting is minimal in size. We present polynomial-time algorithms to solve variants of this problem and show their correctness. To demonstrate the practical relevance of the proposed problems and the feasibility and effectiveness of our algorithms in practice, we apply these to biomedical ontologies authored in OWL. We find that such rewritings can significantly reduce the size of ontologies by capturing repeated expressions with macros. This approach not only offers valuable assistance in enhancing ontology quality and comprehension but can also be seen as a general methodology for evaluating features of rewriting systems (including syntactic macros, templates, or other forms of rewriting rules), which can be analyzed in terms of their influence on computational problems.

Recurrent Neural Cascades (RNCs) are the recurrent neural networks with no cyclic dependencies among recurrent neurons. This class of recurrent networks has received a lot of attention in practice. Besides training methods for a fixed architecture such as backpropagation, the cascade architecture naturally allows for constructive learning methods, where recurrent nodes are added incrementally one at a time, often yielding smaller networks. Furthermore, acyclicity amounts to a structural prior that even for the same number of neurons yields a more favourable sample complexity compared to a fully-connected architecture. A central question is whether the advantages of the cascade architecture come at the cost of a reduced expressivity. We provide new insights into this question. We show that the regular languages captured by RNCs with sign and tanh activation with positive recurrent weights are the star-free regular languages. In order to establish our results we developed a novel framework where capabilities of RNCs are assessed by analysing which semigroups and groups a single neuron is able to implement. A notable implication of our framework is that RNCs can achieve the expressivity of all regular languages by introducing neurons that can implement groups.

We present an FCA-based axiomatization method that produces a complete OWL 2 EL TBox (the terminological part of an OWL 2 EL ontology) from a graph dataset in at most exponential time. We describe technical details that allow for efficient implementation as well as variations that dispense with the computation of extremely large axioms, thereby rendering the approach applicable albeit some completeness is lost. Moreover, we evaluate the prototype on real-world datasets.

Artificial Intelligence for Theorem Proving (AITP) has given rise to a plethora of benchmarks and methodologies, particularly in Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP). Research in the area is fragmented, with a diverse set of approaches being spread across several ITP systems. This presents a significant challenge to the comparison of methods, which are often complex and difficult to replicate. Addressing this, we present BAIT, a framework for the fair and streamlined comparison of learning approaches in ITP. We demonstrate BAIT’s capabilities with an in-depth comparison, across several ITP benchmarks, of state-of-the-art architectures applied to the problem of formula embedding. We find that Structure Aware Transformers perform particularly well, improving on techniques associated with the original problem sets. BAIT also allows us to assess the end-to-end proving performance of systems built on interactive environments. This unified perspective reveals a novel end-to-end system that improves on prior work. We also provide a qualitative analysis, illustrating that improved performance is associated with more semantically-aware embeddings. By streamlining the implementation and comparison of Machine Learning algorithms in the ITP context, we anticipate BAIT will be a springboard for future research.

Conflict detection is relevant in various application scenarios, ranging from interactive decision-making to the diagnosis of faulty knowledge bases. Conflicts can be regarded as sets of constraints that cause an inconsistency. In many scenarios (e.g., constraint-based configuration), conflicts are repeatedly determined for the same or similar sets of constraints. This misses out on the valuable opportunity for leveraging knowledge reuse and related potential performance improvements, which are extremely important, specifically interactive constraint-based applications. In this paper, we show how to integrate knowledge reuse concepts into non-instructive conflict detection. We introduce the InformedQX algorithm, which is a reuse-aware variant of QuickXPlain. The results of a related performance analysis with the Linux-2.6.3.33 configuration knowledge base show significant improvements in terms of runtime performance compared to QuickXPlain.

We present a general framework for abstracting agent behavior in multi-agent synchronous games in the situation calculus, which provides a first-order representation of the state and allows us to model how plays depend on the data and objects involved. We represent such games as action theories of a special form called situation calculus synchronous game structures (SCSGSs), in which we have a single action "tick" whose effects depend on the combination of moves selected by the players. In our framework, one specifies both an abstract SCSGS and a concrete SCSGS, as well as a refinement mapping that specifies how each abstract move is implemented by a Golog program defined over the concrete SCSGS. We define notions of sound and complete abstraction with respect to a mapping over such SCSGS. To express strategic properties on the abstract and concrete games we adopt a first-order variant of alternating-time mu-calculus mu-ATL-FO. We show that we can exploit abstraction in verifying mu-ATL-FO properties of SCSGSs under the assumption that agents can always execute abstract moves to completion even if not fully controlling their outcomes.

Foundation models have vast potential to enable diverse AI applications. The powerful yet incomplete nature of these models has spurred a wide range of mechanisms to augment them with capabilities such as in-context learning, information retrieval, and code interpreting. We propose Vieira, a declarative framework that unifies these mechanisms in a general solution for programming with foundation models. Vieira follows a probabilistic relational paradigm and treats foundation models as stateless functions with relational inputs and outputs. It supports neuro-symbolic applications by enabling the seamless combination of such models with logic programs, as well as complex, multi-modal applications by streamlining the composition of diverse sub-models. We implement Vieira by extending the Scallop compiler with a foreign interface that supports foundation models as plugins. We implement plugins for 12 foundation models including GPT, CLIP, and SAM. We evaluate Vieira on 9 challenging tasks that span language, vision, and structured and vector databases. Our evaluation shows that programs in Vieira are concise, can incorporate modern foundation models, and have comparable or better accuracy than competitive baselines.